Kako uvesti decu mlađih i starijih generacija u svet fizike? Svakako korak po korak, jedinstvenim ogledima i učenjem kroz igru. Izučavanje kretanja može postati nešto što je “lako” i lepo, pod uslovom da se deci pokaže kroz niz zanimljivih aktivnosti: jednostavnim ogledima i aktivnim učešćem učenika, kroz rad u paru / grupi. Na ovaj način učenicima četvrtog razreda se pruža mogućnost da im časovi budu interesantniji i dinamičniji, da stečena znanja povežu sa svakodnevnim životom pa će razumeti ono što su naučili, a tako usvojeno znanje će biti trajnije.
Radionica je izvedena u okviru tematskog dana Kretanje u saradnji sa učiteljicom Ivanom Milošević.
The list of activities
STEP 1: Accompanied by the song “Ivin voz“, the students come into the classroom, positioned in the form of a train. STEP 2: The talk about the following question comes next: Who/what moves, (they watch through the window – a passer-by, bird, leaf on the branch...); What is motion? STEP 3: How do we know that we are in motion? The experiment: the eyes of a student are tied and other two students lift him with their arms and make a step forward. Stepping forwards alternates with the stepping in one place. What does(n't) the student whose eyes are tied notice, and what does(n't) a viewer notice? Why? STEP 4: The students sit in a semi-circle and are given the task to move objects/figures in different ways (push, lift, roll, spin them...) STEP 5: On what does the speed of the motion of objects depend? The students will be given the answer to this question by doing the following experiments, in pairs, assisted by material and a worksheet.
- Bottles filled with a different amount of sand – in the previous art class the students made clowns from the bottles which they had filled with different amounts of sand. They let the clowns roll down the “slope“, and they sorted them according to their speed and came to the conclusion that the doll with the largest amount of sand in it rolled fastest, in other words, the speed of the motion of an object depended on the amount of sand in the bottle/the weight of the doll.
- Dice, ball, cylinder – by the same strength (force) the students moved a dice, ball and a cylinder, made from the same material, of almost the same size. They watched the movements of those three objects of various shapes and came to the conclusion that the ball moved fastest, in other words, the speed of the motion of an object depended on the shape of the object.
- “The path” – the students made the paths from: a textile carpet, rushes and aluminium foil. By the same strength (force) they moved a toy car and reached the following conclusion: the car moved fastest on the foil and slowest on the textile carpet, in other words, the speed of the motion of an object depended on the type of the base.
- “The force“ of the impact on the object – two wedges have been driven into the wooden board. Elastic tape has been tied between them. By watching its motion, the students have come to the conclusion that the dice moves fastest when we tauten the rubber band most, in other words, the speed of the motion of an object depends on the force of the impact on the object.
- “The slope” – a toy car is placed on the board. the students move it by changing the incline and reach the conclusion that when the incline is raised suddenly, the toy car moves faster, in other words, the speed of the motion of an object depends on the incline of the base.
- “The pendulum” – the students made pendulums of various lengths from plasticine and cord. They moved them to the same direction at the same time, using approximately the same force and concluded that the speed of the motion of the pendulum depended on the length of the pendulum.
- Galileo’s experiment – having climbed up the ladder, the students let the three dice of the same size fall from the same height at the same time, made of different material (of wood, metal and plastics) and conluded that the dice touched the ground at the same time.
STEP 6: The reporting and discussion follow. STEP 7: A mind map on the whiteboard represents the conclusion reached by the students and their teacher when doing experiments and drawing conclusions, on which the speed of the motion of different objects can depend. The central notion of the mind map is in the shape of a rocket. STEP 8: All pairs have the same material for designing a rocket: a balloon, cord, adhesive tape, thin tube. Then they make and move their “rocket”. The moment they release their inflated balloon, previously glued to the thin tube, the air begins to go out of the balloon downwards while the balloon moves along the cord. STEP 9: Let’s dream a little. How far can we reach with a real rocket? In the real world everything moves constantly and with a child’s imagination and drawing we can reach far and high?!
In Serbian classes the students are given the small pictures of these experiments and they have a task to describe each, using 3-4 sentences (story based on photos).
Through play and experimenting students are given the opportunity to enjoy the charms of physics. The written stories based on photos show that the students have understood how an object can be moved and what can impact the speed of the motion of objects. In addition, it has been shown that the cooperation between the general education teacher and the physics teacher came to fruition, taking into account all the implemented activities by the students and the atmosphere during the lesson as well.